The new generation of engines have been developed versions of the foregoing. It uses new materials and frequently adds new elements, but the general concept remains the same. It is still the combustion of jet fuel in the combustion chamber that is ultimately used as a drive source, but more modernized techniques will be applied, and the development of better materials does not stop here. The benefits of these engines are mainly: weight reduction, lower fuel consumption and lower emissions of harmful gases.
The hot air will now rotate the turbines. These are connected via a central shaft with the fan. The exhaust of the engine accelerates the exhaust gases still more. As a result, there is a difference in speed between the ambient air and the exhaust gases. This difference implies the thrust. The thrust of the engine benefits not only from the combustion of kerosene through which the hot air turns the turbines. A part of the thrust also comes from the rotating fans that have the same function as a propeller.
Bypass ratio can be defined as the ratio of the air that does not pass through core of the turbofan engine in front of the amount of air that it runs through the motor. A high bypass ratio means that the amount of air is much larger goes around the core than the amount of air that passes through the core.
The high bypass ratio has several advantages. Especially first pass less air through the core so less fuel is injected and therefore lower consumption. With a high bypass ratio engines are often equipped with a larger fan with more blades in order to enhance the propeller effect. Furthermore, a high bypass ratio engine produces less noise, which increases the comfort of the passengers. The noise reduction comes because the flow of cold air around the outlet has a dampening effect. The outlet pressure is also lower, which also makes for a reduction. The great strength of these engines will have to turn these less at full strength which as a secondary effect also reduces noise. The air in the by-pass also allows for a better cooling of the motor. A well-cooled engine has better combustion which lower emissions of harmful gases in the hand works.
Manufacturers are increasingly using composites to manufacture from various parts of their planes. A disadvantage is that composites are replaceable harder than metals. For example, in the fuselage of an aircraft is to restore the more difficult when it is made of a composite in front of aluminum. In contrast, however, that people experimenting with composites that would repair minor damage on its own.
The driving of both the fan and the compressors at their optimum speeds, makes for a more efficient combustion. This allows fuel consumption and emissions of harmful gases are reduced. The very high bypass ratio engines are also quieter. The addition of the gear box also has disadvantages. The really big fan creates more drag, which then again is detrimental to fuel consumption. The maneuverability of the unit would therefore be affected. Adding the gearbox and additional drive shafts for the compressor and the fan could impair the reliability of the engine. It should be noted that by reducing the size of the compressors, the reliability then rises again.
The weight loss by reducing the size of the compressor is canceled out by the addition of the gearbox. There, energy is lost through the heating of the gearbox. This has very little impact on the performance of the engine.
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