A tunnel is an underground passage that serves for traffic or transport and is artificially constructed. Traffic can include cars, trains, bikes and pedestrians. Additionally tunnels can also be used for transport of liquids such as drinking water and wastewater pipes can also be run through tunnels.
To a lesser extent a tunnel intended as a waterway or animals can use them to get from one park to another. It is also a possibility to use a tunnel for ventilation.
Tunnelling can have various reasons such as lack of space in urban centers or minimizing overhead burden on the environment through odor or noise. An important reason for which especially road tunnels to be built is the abbreviation of a route or to avoid mountain passes. Also, many tunnels to be built in order to pass an obstacle such as a waterway or a highway or a railroad. Tunnels are sometimes necessary because the situation is no other choice is possible for example to not hinder shipping by a bridge. Also, many tunnels constructed in connection with the safety of eg intersections that were previously ground or crosses the track where long queues and discomfort prevailed. And there are tunnels appeared on routes for a faster connection by being able to avoid time-consuming ferries. An expensive but important reason to build tunnels to prevent noise pollution in certain urban areas or to not disturb nature.
To build a tunnel must first be a thorough study of the geological setting of the rock or soil, causing the tunnel to be drilled. Only then the appropriate method of construction can be determined in which it is a big difference is whether a tunnel by the sandy soil, or by massif must be applied which also the drilling mode must be adapted to the hardness of the material.
The construction of tunnels is very different. A tunnel can be built in advance to let off fabricated elements sink instance in a river, canal or inlet. With this method, zinc, elements of eighty to a hundred or more meters in length to the zinc spot hazards. Thereafter, the element is lowered into a pre-dredged trench and connected to the other parts. Finally, the trench and the space to the element completed with sand.
In a tunnel, which is a shallow trench may be applied where, ultimately, dug in the tunnel is created.
A modern method to build a tunnel through a giant drill to a diameter of eleven meters. Such a machine is when drilling through rock provided with a rotating disc with cutting tools like knives, cutters, blades with which the rock is crushed.
Tunnels made by drilling technology:
2nd Heinenoordtunnel ?? opened in 1999
Westerscheldetunnel ?? opened in 2003
Green Heart Tunnel ?? opened in 2007
Botlek railway ?? opened in 2007
Sophia railway tunnel ?? opened in 2007
Channel Tunnel Pannerdensch ?? opened in 2007
Hubertustunnel ?? opened in 2008
Statenweg ?? opened in 2010